這是由國際特赦組織香港分會寄給您的電子通訊
This e-newsletter is from Amnesty International Hong Kong
 
2018年3月 第2期 | Mar 2018 ISSUE 2
專題: 本土外地打壓表達自由的「藉口」
Feature: "Excuses" to suppress freedom of expression in Hong Kong and Spain

你有無聽過有人因為「講笑」而被拉?
喺西班牙,呢個唔喺講笑!
 
社交媒體平台講笑、上載影片至youtube、rap……現代人可能日日做的事,去到西班牙做就可能被拉去坐監!
‧  ‧  ‧  ‧  ‧  ‧  
根據西班牙刑法第578條,被視為「榮耀恐怖主義」或「羞辱恐怖主義受害者或其親屬」的人,可面臨罰款、禁止在公共部門工作、甚至監禁。
 
國際特赦組織最新調查報告揭露,該反恐法如何限制西班牙的表達自由 - 數十名普通社交媒體用戶、音樂家、記者、甚至木偶戲表演者都以「國家安全」為由而被起訴。此舉為西班牙的表達自由帶來寒蟬效應,使民眾越來越害怕表達其他觀點或引發有爭議的笑話。
 
調查報告指出該條例措辭含糊;西班牙當局更於2015年,因應對巴黎襲擊和國際恐怖主義的威脅而擴寬第578條刑法。西班牙警方自2014年以來,執行四次行動,數十人因在社交媒體平台上發布信息而被捕,但因第578條刑法而起訴的絕大多數案件涉及兩個已解散或息微的當地武裝團體。因此刑法而遭受起訴的人數由2011年的3人增加至2017年的39人,接近70人在過去兩年間被定罪。
 
「饒舌不是犯罪、在社交媒體平台上講笑不是恐怖主義、表演木偶戲不應該令表演者被開進監牢。政府應該維護恐怖主義受害者的權利,但不是以他們的名義扼殺表達自由。當局必須廢除這條嚴苛的法例,並撤銷對和平表達己見的人士的控罪。」- 國際特赦組織反恐倡議幹事Eda Seyhan
 
了解西班牙反恐法如何限制當地的表達自由: http://amst.hk/nj

Have you heard the one about the woman prosecuted for a joke?
No?
For twitter users in Spain, this is not a joke.
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Under Article 578 of the Spanish Criminal Code those deemed to have “glorified terrorism” or “humiliated the victims of terrorism or their relatives” – no matter how vague these terms are – face fines, bans from jobs in the public sector and even prison sentences.
 
Tweet…if you dare: How counter-terrorism laws restrict freedom of expression in Spain reveals that scores of ordinary social media users as well as musicians, journalists and even puppeteers have been prosecuted on grounds of national security. This has had a profoundly chilling effect, creating an environment in which people are increasingly afraid to express alternative views, or make controversial jokes.
 
While Article 578 was broadened in 2015 in response to the Paris attacks and the perceived threat of international terrorism, vast majority of the cases brought under the law relate to disbanded or inactive domestic armed groups, namely ETA and GRAPO. Since 2014, four coordinated police operations – dubbed the “Spider Operations” - led to scores of people arrested for posting messages on social media platforms, in particular Twitter and Facebook.The number of people charged under this Article increased from three in 2011 to 39 in 2017 and nearly 70 people were convicted in the last two years alone.
 
“Rapping is not a crime, tweeting a joke is not terrorism and holding a puppet show should not land you in jail. Governments should uphold the rights of victims of terrorism, rather than stifling free speech in their name. Spain’s draconian law must be repealed and all charges brought against anyone solely for peacefully expressing themselves must be dropped,” - Eda Seyhan, Amnesty’s Campaigner on Counter-Terrorism
 
Learn more about the report: http://amst.hk/nj

討論獨立和自決的自由

日前有參選立法會人士因主張「民主自決」而被取消資格,當中表達自由一概由被抹殺。

在3月的人權星期五中,港大學法律學院首席講師張達明先生就事件從本地法及國際法,以及公職出任要求兩種層面作分析,認為討論獨立和自決等「偏離現有共識的事情」的自由理應受到保障。他同時指事件中政府違反程序公義,認為政府不依法辦事,擁護程序公義,將會衍生很大的問題。

被取消資格的參選人 - 周庭也親身分享。她分享選舉主任取消其參選資格的正式文件。同時表達對政治準則不受法律規限的擔憂,認為「主權不能凌駕個人言論自由及基本的政治權利」。

透過完整的人權星期五重溫,認識更多有關討論獨立和自決的自由: http://amst.hk/nf

The Freedom of Discussing "Independence” and “Self-Determination”

How would the disqualification of LegCo candidates based on a certain political stance affect our freedom of expression?
 
In the Human Rights Friday on March, Eric TM Cheung, the Principal Lecturer of the Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong, analysed the incident from two perspectives: 1) local and international law; and 2) requirements of civil servant appointment. It is believed that the freedom to "discuss issues that are deviated from the existing consensus", such as independence and self-determination, should be protected. He also pointed out that the government has violated procedural justice, there could be severe problems if the government does not act in accordance with the law and embraces procedural justice. 
 
The disqualified LegCo election candidate, Agnes Chow Ting, shared her experience and the official documents that the electoral officer disqualified her candidacy. She expressed her concern regarding the political criteria not subject to legal restrictions, and “sovereignty should not override personal freedom of speech and basic political rights” 
 
Learn more from the recap of the Friday event (in Cantonese): http://amst.hk/nf

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